Among the supporters of Shepherd’s view of Paul and James was one who had died in the 30’s. The honorable Presbyterian J. Gresham Machen did not distinguish between two different senses of “justify,” assigning one to James and the other to Paul. Machen writes:
The solution of the whole problem is provided by Paul himself in a single phrase. In Gal. 5:6, he says, ‘For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision; but faith working through love (italics mine).’
If Shepherd is to be condemned for seeing Paul and James speaking of the same justification, then Machen should not have escaped the wrath of Westminster Seminary.